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Appendix 14
The Productivity Puzzle
A Bibliography

Allison, P.D. and J. A. Stewart. 1974.  Productivity differences among scientists: Evidence for accumulative advantage.  American Sociological Review 39:596-606.

Cole, J. R., and B. Singer. 1991.  A theory of limited differences: explaining the productivity puzzle in Science.  In: H. Zuckerman, J.R. Cole, and J.T. Bruer, eds. The outer circle : Women in the scientific community. p. 277-310. Norton, N.Y.

Cole, J. R. and H. Zuckerman. 1984.  The productivity puzzle: Persistence and change in patterns of publication of men and women scientists.  In M. W. Steinkamp and M. L. Maehr, eds.  Advances in Motivation and Achievement.  2:217-256 JAI, Greenwich Conn.

Cole, J. R. and H. Zuckerman. 1987.  Marriage, motherhood and research performance in science.  Scientific American 255(2):119-125.

Fox, M. F. 1983.  Publication productivity among scientists: A critical review.  Social Studies of Science 13:285-305.

Garfield, E.  1993.  Women in Science.  Part 1: The productivity puzzle – J. Scott Long on why women biochemists publish less than men.  Current Comments 9 (1 March):3-5

Hargens, L. L., J. C. McCann, and B. F. Reskin.  1978.  Productivity and reproductivity: professional achievement among research scientists.  Social Forces 57:154-163.

Hornig, L. S.  1987.  Women graduate students.  In:  L. S. Dix, ed.  Women: their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering.  Pp. 103-122.  National Academy Press.

Long, J. S. 1992.  Measures of sex differences in scientific productivity.  Social Forces 71:159-178.

Primack, R. B. and V. O’Leary. 1993.  Cumulative disadvantages in the careers of women ecologists.  BioScience 43(3):158-165.

Note: This article contains a photograph of an anonymous young women “getting her feet wet” in an ecology course sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Studies in 1973.  I was the woman in the photo. 

I contacted Dr. Primack about the study, but was not able to ascertain if I was a participant in it.  He made this comment: “Were you the person in the picture?  that picture has received a lot of comments. I think that the picture does not show a strong appearance, and perhaps does not support the idea of women as strong scientists.  However, it does capture the tentative nature of women as scientists at that time.”  Perhaps I still have a tentative appearance.  I have persisted in science up until now, however.  Like my research philosophy, I am a paradigm shift.

Primack, R. B. and E. A. Stacy. 1997. Women ecologists catching up in scientific productivity, but only when they join the race.  BioScience 47:169-74

Sonnert, G. and G. Holton, 1995. “Who Succeeds in Science? The Gender Dimension”, Rutgers University Press, NJ. 215 pp.

Zuckerman, H. 1987.  Persistence and change in the careers of men and women scientists and engineers.  In: L. S. Dix, ed.  Women: their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering.  Pp. 127-156.  National Academy Press.

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