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Allison, P.D. and J. A. Stewart.
1974. Productivity differences
among scientists: Evidence for accumulative advantage.
American Sociological Review 39:596-606.
Cole, J. R., and B. Singer. 1991.
A theory of limited differences: explaining the productivity puzzle in
Science. In: H. Zuckerman, J.R.
Cole, and J.T. Bruer, eds. The outer circle : Women in the scientific community.
p. 277-310. Norton, N.Y.
Cole, J. R. and H. Zuckerman. 1984.
The productivity puzzle: Persistence and change in patterns of
publication of men and women scientists. In
M. W. Steinkamp and M. L. Maehr, eds. Advances
in Motivation and Achievement. 2:217-256
JAI, Greenwich Conn.
Cole, J. R. and H. Zuckerman. 1987.
Marriage, motherhood and research performance in science. Scientific American 255(2):119-125.
Fox, M. F. 1983.
Publication productivity among scientists: A critical review.
Social Studies of Science 13:285-305.
1993. Women in Science. Part
1: The productivity puzzle – J. Scott Long on why women biochemists publish
less than men. Current Comments 9
Hargens, L. L., J. C. McCann, and B.
F. Reskin. 1978.
Productivity and reproductivity: professional achievement among research
scientists. Social Forces
Hornig, L. S.
1987. Women graduate students.
In: L. S. Dix, ed.
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engineering. Pp. 103-122.
National Academy Press.
Long, J. S. 1992.
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Social Forces 71:159-178.
Primack, R. B. and V. O’Leary.
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the careers of women ecologists. BioScience 43(3):158-165.
Note: This article contains a
photograph of an anonymous young women “getting her feet wet” in an ecology
course sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Studies in 1973.
I was the woman in the photo.
I contacted Dr. Primack about the
study, but was not able to ascertain if I was a participant in it.
He made this comment: “Were you the
person in the picture? that picture
has received a lot of comments. I think that the picture does not show a strong
appearance, and perhaps does not support the idea of women as strong scientists.
However, it does capture the tentative nature of women as scientists at
that time.” Perhaps I still have
a tentative appearance. I have persisted in science up until now, however.
Like my research philosophy, I am a paradigm shift.
Primack, R. B. and E. A. Stacy. 1997. Women ecologists catching up in scientific
productivity, but only when they join the race.
Sonnert, G. and G. Holton, 1995.
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NJ. 215 pp.
Zuckerman, H. 1987.
Persistence and change in the careers of men and women scientists and
engineers. In: L. S. Dix, ed. Women:
their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering.
Pp. 127-156. National
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