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A Few References of Interest to Bee Lovers

Books on Osmia management.  See below to learn more.

Books about Solitary Bees
Books about Pollination
Crop pollination
Articles - General Reader
Articles - Technical
Bumblebee rearing and general information
Identifying bees 
More bee websites (Tom Clothier website
Bee Gardens

Books about Solitary Bees

Andrews, Sir Christopher. 1969. The Lives of Wasps and Bees. Chatto Windus, London. 204pp. This book focuses on British species, but the basic biology is similar to US species.

Bosch, J. and W. Kemp. 2001. How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee, Sustainable Ag. Network Handbook series, Book 5.
This book has excellent color photos, lots of details, and especially good sections on parasites and predators, and on incubation and emergence.  Excellent if you know these bees; a bit technical for a beginner.
Now available free in PDF format at the SARE website:  http://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/Books/How-to-Manage-the-Blue-Orchard-Bee

Dogterom, M.  2002, revised 2009.  Pollination with Mason Bees.  BEEDIVERSE™ BOOKS 
$16.45 U.S.   plus shipping and handling.  
Black and white drawings, all of the basics of Osmia management plus information on other kinds of bees.  If you are just discovering orchard bees, this is a great book to start with.  Also contains a discussion of loose cocoon management, particularly useful for controlling hairy-fingered mites (they don't affect honeybees).
To order see below:

To order, send check made out to Karen Strickler / Pollinator Paradise to: 31140 Circle Dr., Parma, ID 83660. 
Or, pay with credit card on PayPal.      

Foreign orders contact Pollinator Paradise for shipping and handling costs.
 

Fabre, Jean Henri. 1915. Bramble-bees and Others. (Translation by Teixeira de Mattos) Dodd, Mead and Co. Includes essays on Osmia behavior. Also, Fabre's 1914 book, The Mason Bees, is worth reading, although this group of bees is rare in the US).

Krombein, Karl V. 1967. Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees. Smithsonian Press.  
A classic, full of loads of information on solitary bee and wasp species, how they make their nests, predators and parasites, etc.  Out of print, but worth ordering through interlibrary loan or through a used book dealer.  Portions now available online.

Griffin, Brian L. 1993. The Orchard Mason Bee. Knox Cellars Publishing.

Matheson, A., S. L. Buchmann, C. O'Toole, P. Westrich and I. H. Williams. 1996. The conservation of bees.  Linnean Society Symposium Series 18, Academic Press.  Somewhat technical.

Michener, C.D., R.J. McGinley, and B.N. Danforth. 1994. The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Technical keys, but some good drawings of different kinds of bees, and  information on their biology.

O'Toole, Christopher and Anthony Raw. 1991. Bees of the World. Facts on File, New York. 192 pp.
One of the best general reading books on bee biology and diversity.

Stephen, W.P., G.E. Bohart, and P.F. Torchio. 1969. The biology and external morphology of bees. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Technical keys; focuses on Northwestern America, but the basic biology is universal.

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Books about Pollination

Dafni, A. 1992. Pollination Ecology: A practical approach. IRL Press at Oxford University Press.

Faegri, K. and L. van der Pijl, 1979. The principles of pollination ecology. 3rd edition. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.  (A new edition of this book has been published more recently).

Kearns, Carol Ann and David William Inouye. 1993. Techniques for pollination biologists. University Press of Colorado.

Nabhan, Gary and Steve Buchmann. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, Washington D.C. 292pp.

Proctor, M. and P. Yeo. 1973. The pollination of flowers. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York.

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Crop Pollination:

Two books have been published by the Entomological Society of America about bees and crop pollination.  Read about them and order at the ESA web site (scroll down to find the books)

C.S. Stubbs, F.A. Drummond, eds.  2003.  Bees and Crop Pollination - Crisis, Crossroads, Conservation.    Thomas Say Publications of the Entomological Society of America.

Strickler, K. and J. H. Cane, eds.  2003.  For Nonnative Crops, Whence Pollinators of the future?   Thomas Say Publications of the Entomological Society of America.   Summary and Table of contents
_______________________________________

Delaplane, Keith S. and Daniel F. Mayer.  2000.  Crop Pollination by Bees.  CABI Publishing

Free, John B.. 1993. Insect Pollination of Crops. Academic Press.  Now available on-line.

McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Agriculture Handbook No. 496, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington, DC. Available now on the web, at the GEARS site of the USDA bee labs in Tucson, Arizona:    http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/book/index.html

Kevan, P.  1999.  Sustainable Pollination Services for Ontario's Crops.  Ontario Research Enhancement Program, Ag. Canada.
A report on ongoing pollination research on a variety of crops in Ontario, Canada, using honey bees, bumble bees, squash bees and others.  Click above to link to the OREP web site.

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Articles - General Reader

Batra, Suzanne W. 1989. Japanese Hornfaced bees, gentle and efficient new pollinators. Pomona 22(2): 3-5.

Batra, Suzanne W. 1994. Diversify With Pollen Bees. American Bee Journal 134(9):591-593.

Batra, Suzanne W. 1997. Solitary Bees for Vaccinium Pollination. Proc. Sixth Int. Sym. Vaccinium, D.E. Yarborough and J.M. Smagula, eds. Acta Hort. 446 p 71-76.

Bosch J. and W. P. Kemp.  1999. Exceptional cherry production in an orchard pollinated with blue orchard bees.  Bee World 80: 163-173.

Farner, Tom. 1993. A Busier Bee. Harrowsmith Country Life May-June 62-64.

Gill, Brad. 1995. Orchard Mason Bees. Bee Culture 291-294
(includes a few additional references).

Goodstein, Carol. 1997.  Imperiled Pollinators! Brooklyn Botanic Garden Plant and Garden News, vol. 12 no. 1 p. 3,11-13.

Gordon, David M. Feb. 2000.  Enhancing Alternative Pollinators.  Western Fruit Grower, vol. 120 no. 2, p. 17-20

Henkes, R. 1997. Calling All Pollinators. The Furrow 10-13.

Javorek, S., K. MacKenzie, and D. Rogers. 1996. Bee Pollinators of Apple and Lowbush Blueberry in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Dept. of Agriculture and Marketing. This $2 (Canadian) brochure explains how to identify several important groups of bees. It should be relevant to Eastern United States as well as Nova Scotia. Contact Dick Rogers, NS Dept. of Agriculture and Marketing, Agriculture Centre, 32 Main Street, Kentville, Nova Scotia B4N 1J5 for a copy.

Jesiolowski, Jill.  May-June 1996.  Get bugs to boost your yields!  Organic Gardening  pp. 28-35.

Lang, H. 1996. Orchard Mason Bees. Gardens West Nov./Dec. p. 47.

Lovejoy, Sharon. 1997. Bee Prepared. Country Living Gardener Jan./Feb.

University of Maine Bulletin  Understanding Native Bees 

Wood, Marcia 2003.  "Blue Orchard Bee—A Champion Cherry Pollinator"   Agricultural Research magazine.  January 2003  http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan03/bee0103.htm 

Wright, Amy Bartlett. May-June 1997.  The other pollinators.  National Gardening.pp. 32-37+ 

Xerces Society  Farming for Bees 

USDA ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Labs, Logan Utah
     Logan bee mail shelter  
     Build a nest block 
     Stick and stake nests  

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Articles - Technical

See also the list of publications available on the web site for the USDA ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab in Logan Utah.

Bosch, J.,and W.P. Kemp. 2000. Development and emergence the orchard pollinator of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).  Environ. Entomol. 29:8-13.

Bosch, J., W.P. Kemp, and S. S. Peterson. 2000. Management of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) populations for almond pollination: Methods to advance bee emergence. Environ. Entomol. 29:874-883.

Tepedino, V.J. and P. F. Torchio. 1982. Phenotypic variability in nesting success among Osmia lignaria propinqua females in a glasshouse environment (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ecological Entomol. 7:453-462.

Torchio, P.F. 1982. Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in Apple Orchards: II, 1976 Studies (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 55(4):759-778.

Torchio, P.F. 1982. Field experiments with the pollinator species, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in Apple Orchards: V (1979-1980), Methods of Introducing Bees, Nesting Success, Seed Counts, Fruit Yields (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58(3):448-464.

Torchio, P.F. 1987. Use of Non-Honey Bee Species as Pollinators of Crops. Proc. ent. Soc. Ont. 118:111-124.

Torchio, P.F. 1989. In-nest Biologies and Development of Immature Stages of Three Osmia Species (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 82:599-615.

Torchio, P.F. 1990. Diversification of Pollination Strategies for U.S. Crops. Environ. Entomol. 19:1649-1656.

Torchio, P. F. and V. J. Tepedino. 1980. Sex ratio, body size, and seasonality in a solitary bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Evolution 34:993-1003.

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Bumblebee Rearing and Information

Kearns, C.A. and J. D. Thomson. 2001.  The Natural History of Bumblebees: A Sourcebook for Investigations.  University Press of Colorado.

Plowright, R.C. and S.C. Jay, 1966. Rearing bumble bee colonies in captivity. Journal of Apicultural Research 5(3):155-165.

Morgan, P. and M. Percival. 1967. The rearing and management of bumble bees for students of biology. Bee World 48:45-58, 100-109.

Alford, D.V. 1975. Bumblebees. London: Davis-Poynter.

Pomeroy, N. & Plowright, R.C. 1980. Maintenance of bumble bee colonies in observation hives (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Canadian Entomologist, 112, 3321-6.

Prys-Jones, O. E. and S. A. Corbet. 1991. Bumblebees. Richmond Publishing Co. Lit, Slough, England (Chapter 4: Nests and their establishment in captivity).

Brian Griffin from Knox Cellars (see supplier's list) also has published a book on bumblebees, and he and several seed companies around the US sell nest boxes that bumblebees may use.

Bumblebee series by Dr. Keith Delaplane, Extension Entomologist, University of Georgia:

Why Bumble Bees pp 459-460 American Bee Journal, July 1995
Bumble Beekeeping: The Queen Starter Box ABJ, Nov, 1995
Bumble Beekeeping: Introducing Queens to Nest in Captivity"" ABJ, Jan,1996
Bumble Beekeeping: Handling Mature Colonies, Mating Queens"" ABJ, Feb, 1996

The American Bee Journal, 
Dadant & Sons, 
51S. 2nd St., 
Hamilton, IL 62341
217-847-3324
http://www.dadant.com

Bumblebees of Washington  (Evergreen State University)

Bumble bees of Utah (USDA ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab, Logan UT)

Heinrich, B.  1979.  Bumblebee Economics.  Harvard University Press,  245 pp.
This book is not about rearing bumblebees, but is a very readable account of their ecology and natural history, focusing on how and why they choose to forage on particular plants.  There is also a page of drawings of the species of Bombus of North and Central America that is useful for identification.

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Identifying Bees

Is it a bee?  The Logan bee lab helps you distinguish bees from other similar insects.  See also FAQ pages for this web. 

The NBII (National Biological Information Infrastructure) Pollinators Project
  including information about bees and wasps
The Great Sunflower Project, (San Francisco State University) bee guides 
Bees of eastern Canada   (University of Alberta) has excellent photos and discussion of bee species that is relevant to the rest of North America.  This publication takes a while to download; it is 31MB. 
The Bug Guide's bee pages.  Lots of great photos.  Visit the other tabs at the top of the site for taxonomy and other information.

To identify bees you need to collect a few of them so you can have a close look at the wing veination, the tongue and other characters that depend on the particular group of bees and how detailed you want to identify them.  The Peterson and Audubon field guides to the Insects both have some information on the families of bees, and will give you an idea of the characters that you have to look for.

More technical keys for the true connoisseur (you will need to find an expert and a museum collection for comparison to get the most out of these keys):

Michener, C.D. 2000.  Bees of the World.
A list of bee genera of the world, based on this book can be found at here, courtesy of Doug Yanega. 
Also available, a Key to bees of the world.

Michener, C.D., R.J. McGinley, and B.N. Danforth. 1994. The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press. 
Technical keys, but some good drawings of different kinds of bees, and  information on their biology.

www.discoverlife.org has an online guide to the bees of the Eastern United States:
Theodore Mitchell's two volume set The Bees of the Eastern United States was published in 1960 (part I) and 1962 (part II), North Carolina Ag. Exp. Stat. Tech. Bul. No. 140 & 152.    It is now available on the web: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/entomology/insectmuseum/easternBees.php 
Many of the keys have also been improved upon at the Discover Life web: http://pick14.pick.uga.edu/20/q?search=Apoidea

Stephen, W.P., G.E. Bohart, and P.F. Torchio. 1969. The biology and external morphology of bees. Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Technical keys; focuses on Northwestern America, but the basic biology is universal.

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Top of Page  Pollinator Paradise      Pollination Ecology at UI    The Solitary Bee Web   
 Rearing Solitary Bees    Suppliers    References   Bee Gardens    FAQ   Links     Contact Us  
New Mexico Native Bee Pollinator Project
   About Dr. Strickler
Bee Nests and Accessories  Bee Photo Gallery   Trapnesting Wasps and Bees

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Updated August 6, 2009
Copyright © 2000, Karen Strickler. All rights reserved.